Saturday May 14, 2022
Somalia will hold a long-awaited presidential election on
Sunday, ending months of delays, with the new leader set to confront huge
challenges including a grinding Islamist insurgency and a punishing drought
that has sparked famine fears.
The troubled Horn of Africa nation has been grappling with a
political crisis since February 2021, when President Mohamed Abdullahi
Mohamed’s term ended without a new vote.
The 39 candidates include the incumbent, better known as
Farmajo, as well as past presidents Sharif Sheikh Ahmed and Hassan Sheikh
Mohamud and former prime minister Hassan Ali Kheyre.
Puntland state president Said Abdullahi Dani and former
foreign minister Fawzia Yusuf Adan — the lone female contender — are also
among the record number of candidates vying for the top job.
All have vowed to tackle Somalia’s myriad problems and bring
relief to citizens weary of violence by Al-Shabaab jihadists, surging inflation
and a worsening drought.
The vote is expected to draw a line under a political crisis
that has lasted well over a year, after Farmajo attempted to extend his rule by
decree, triggering violent street battles as rival factions clashed in the
Following international pressure, he appointed Prime
Minister Mohamed Hussein Roble to seek consensus on a way forward, but progress
has been painfully sluggish, dogged by claims of irregularities and political
The growing rift between the two men has not helped matters,
while the central government has also been embroiled in disputes with certain
states, further slowing down the voting process.
– ‘Reset button’ –
“This electoral process that has been so protracted
offers a reset button,” said Samira Gaid, executive director of the Hiraal
Institute, a Mogadishu-based security think tank.
“The country is very polarised at the moment and you
expect that whoever comes in will work towards reuniting the country,” she
Somalia has not held a one-person, one-vote election in 50
Polls follow a complex indirect model, whereby state
legislatures and clan delegates pick lawmakers for the national parliament, who
in turn choose the president.
The winning candidate must secure the backing of two-thirds
of parliament, which means a minimum of 184 votes.
With 39 people up for the presidency, the complicated
process is expected to require multiple rounds of voting and stretch late into
“In terms of predicting the outcome, Somalia politics
is notoriously difficult to predict, especially because it is an indirect, sort
of closed system with MPs voting for the president,” said Omar Mahmood, an
analyst at the International Crisis Group (ICG) think tank.
“At the end of the day, I think it’s… predominantly
about alliances and relationships rather than concrete ideas,” he told
– Challenges ahead –
Somalia’s global partners, which include the United States,
the African Union and the United Nations among others, this week urged the
country’s leaders “to conclude this final stage of the electoral process
swiftly, peacefully and credibly so that attention can turn to domestic and
The international community has long warned Somalia’s
government that political infighting and election delays have allowed the
Al-Qaeda-linked Al-Shabaab to exploit the situation and carry out more frequent
and large-scale attacks.
Twin suicide bombings in March killed 48 people in central
Somalia, including two local lawmakers.
Last week, an attack on an African Union base killed 10
Burundian peacekeepers, according to Burundi’s army. It was the deadliest raid
on AU forces in the country since 2015.
While the insurgency has dragged on for over a decade, the
economy has been on life support, with over 70 percent of Somalia’s population
living on less than $1.90 a day.
The country’s financial fortunes are hugely dependent on the
successful completion of Sunday’s election.
A three-year $400-million (380-million-euro) aid package
from the International Monetary Fund (IMF) is set to automatically expire by
mid-May if a new administration is not in place by then.
The government has asked for a three-month extension until
August 17, according to the IMF, which has not yet responded to the request.
Graft remains a persistent problem for Somalia, which sits
near the bottom of Transparency International’s world corruption index, ranking
178 out of 180 nations.
The new president will also have to tackle the country’s
crippling drought, which threatens to drive millions into famine, with young
children facing the greatest risk.
UN agencies have warned of a humanitarian catastrophe unless
early action is taken, with emergency workers fearing a repeat of the devastating
2011 famine, which killed 260,000 people — half of them children under the age
Additional sources • AFP